2011년 12월 27일 화요일

Nuclear security is responsibility of individual countries

Nuclear security is responsibility of individual countries

World leaders will gather again in Seoul, South Korea next march. The theme of this meeting is real threat. The worst possible threat is when terrorists blow up so called 'dirty bomb'. Dirty bomb is not a complete atomic bomb but its's explosion can lead to chaos. The economic consequence of the explosion will be same just as of the real bomb.

Just as the protection of the nuclear facilites is important, the protection of nuclear materials should be tightened. Two years after the washington summit, the protection of nuclear materials and facilities have been greatly improved.

Nuclear security is basic responsibilities of each individuals. Yet, the past ten years, IAEA has done various efforts to improve nuclear security. It has acceded to advice questions about nuclear protection laws and found weak nuclear securities points in each countries. It has also worked to improve securities in medical and industry related protection. Since effective nuclear security requires highly skilled manpower and advanced technology. IAEA has edcuated about nuclear security in 120 countries against more than 10,000 people.

IAEA is also helping countries to establish tracking system of theft nuclear materials and providing nuclear detectiion equipments to deter terrorists from smuggling.

The most effective way to understand the trend of nuclear security is information. IAEA's 'Illegal trade tracking database' is useful in detecting unauthroized nuclear activities and nuclear thefts. The database has registered more than 150 activities of illegal transcations. IAEA is helping to prevent world cup or olympic activities from nuclear terror. Threat evaluation, radiation detecting ability development are some of the activies that IAEA is doing to prevent nuclear terror.

Terrorists will try to find the weakest security system in the world. For that reason, IAEA which has 152 member states can contribute a lot.

I am very thankful that South Korea has become a strong supporter of international nuclear security system as it is the host country of 2012 Nuclear Security Summit. As mentioned from 2011 Nuclear Security Summit in Washington, I firmly believe that IAEA's support for strengthening nuclear security activities will repeat in Seoul.

Ratify Amended Convention for Counterterrorism
Among them, the easiest decisive action that participating states can do is to ratify 'Amended Convention on the Protection Nuclear Material (ACPNM)'. This convention is one of the important international law systems to coutner terrors. This convention was amended for Nuclear materials usage, stroage, and transportaion and to expand the coverage of 2005 convention. However, this convention has not come into effect because the number of ratifying countries are not yet enough. I encourage world leaders to ratify the amended convention immediately in order to make progress in preventing international nuclear terrorism

Kim Sung-hwan, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, "Nuclear summit : beyond security toward peace"

Kim Sung-hwan, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade, "Nuclear summit : beyond security toward peace"

By Kim Sung-hwan

We often say that we live in an age of uncertainty. In such times, it is only sensible that we hedge our risks and prepare for the unexpected. This has long been a tradition in the field of security and it only became more convincing after the 9/11 terrorist attacks in 2001. This incident made it all too clear that nothing is unimaginable.

This also applies to the danger of nuclear terrorism. One terrorist with one nuclear bomb could unleash such massive destruction that could dwarf all past terrorist acts. Currently, it is estimated that around 1,600 tons of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and 500 tons of plutonium are stored in locations scattered around the world.

This is enough nuclear material to fashion some 126,500 nuclear weapons. According to the Illicit Trafficking Database of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), more than 2,000 cases of illegal trafficking, theft or loss of nuclear and radiological materials have been reported around the world from 1993 to 2011, and of those around 60 percent have not been recovered.

The 9/11 Commission also reported on al-Qaida’s past desire to acquire nuclear materials and it has been known that other terrorist groups such as Aum Shinrikyo tried to get their hands on nuclear materials.

As such, when U.S. President Barack Obama laid out his vision for “a world without nuclear weapons” in Prague in 2009, he rightly pointed out that nuclear security is the urgent first step and foundation for realizing the ultimate goal.

Thus, the first Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington, D.C., last year, where 47 countries and three international organizations gathered to embark on an earnest effort to achieve a safer world by securing vulnerable nuclear materials.

Korea will take over the baton and host the second Nuclear Security Summit in Seoul from March 26 to 27 next year. This reflects Korea’s elevated international standing and the international community’s growing confidence in Korea’s peaceful nuclear activities.

This summit, which will be the largest ever to be held in Korea, will be attended by even more states than the previous summit. Such heightened interest shows that there is significant global awareness and understanding on the gravity of this issue.

As a premier security forum, the Seoul summit will consolidate the highest political resolve of leaders worldwide and take an important step in realizing a world free of nuclear terrorism.

By fostering substantial cooperation among both signatories of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and non-NPT states as well as nuclear and non-nuclear weapon states, it will contribute to building confidence for efforts in nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament.

Specifically, the Seoul summit will advance the vision and commitments made at the previous summit as laid out in the “Washington Communique” and the Work Plan comprising of 50 specific measures for cooperation in 11 areas.

They include: minimization of HEU; ratification of relevant international agreements such as the amended Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material and International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism; and the establishment of Centers of Excellence to provide relevant training.

Building on the work from Washington, we will present new goals and identify practical ways to achieve them, as will be set out in the “Seoul Communique.” One of the focuses will be the interface and synergy between nuclear security and nuclear safety, which has emerged all the more important after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March.

Another important issue will be the threat of “radiological terrorism” which utilizes more primitive yet sufficiently devastating “dirty bombs.” Through these discussions, we hope the Seoul summit will contribute to restoring and renewing our confidence in nuclear energy in this nuclear renaissance.

As U.N. Secretary General Ban Ki-moon stated, just one nuclear terrorist attack could bring unwanted change to the world forever. We face a common security problem ― one which warrants our constant attention and immediate action. We must forge a strong alliance to serve this noble cause and invest today to prevent a catastrophe in the future.

Furthermore, with more than 50 world leaders gathering in Seoul to engage in discussions on key nuclear issues, the summit will also send a message on the vital importance of peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and contribute as such.

Kim Sung-hwan is minister of foreign affairs and trade.

Source : Korea Times

2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit preparing team spokeswoman Han-Chung hi answering to questions

2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit preparing team spokeswoman Han-Chung hi answering to questions

Q : It is the second time holding a nuclear security summit right after the last year April at Washington D.C. What is the meaning of 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit?

A : Referring this summit, president Barack Obama made a speech at april, 2009 in Praha, Czech. Firstly reinforce weak point of nuclear security, and ultimately making a world without nuclear weapon. At that time, second place holding the next nuclear summit was set to Seoul, ROK in 2012. And in Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, efforts made between these 2 years will be evaluated and checked. In 2009, many nations pledged regarding nuclear security, and in 2012 same process will occur adding some new pledges. Also 50 heads of nations will discuss the threat which nuclear terror and radioactive terror connotes. As a holding state, we are part of leading role. We are doing our best.

Q: How is the Chairman country decided?
A: The chairman country is normally decided through discussions between the first chairman country U.S. and many other countries. The reasons we were decided to be the chairman country are because of the part that we kept a firm engagement on the Nuclear Non-proliferation in the international society, the part that we are the powerful nation in the nuclear energy sector possessing 21 nuclear power plants and the fact that we recently exported nuclear energy plants to UAE. And the success host of G20 Seoul Summit has proved that Korea is a capable nation for hosting such international events as the bridge between advanced countries and developing countries. The close relationship between the President Lee Myung Bak and the U.S. President Barak Obama also had a huge effect on the decision as the President Obama actually suggested to the related staffs that Korea should be the next chairman country.

Q: It is said that this summit is the biggest summit to be held in a capital city which will begin on 26th March for 2 days. What is the current status of the participating nations and organisations?
A: At the G20 last year, 30 nations including the international organisations and the special inviting nations, had participated, and at the Washington Nuclear Security Summit, 50 nations, 47 nations and 3 international organisations, had participated. This time few more nations will be added and it is expected that 55 to 60 nations will be participating which is almost the double of G20's participation. This sets the record which will not be broken for a long time. The participating nations consist of the P5(5 nuclear power nations), countries with nuclear energy capability but not possessing any nuclear weapons, countries possessing uranium, representative nations of each region, the 3 nations(India, Pakistan, Israel) that did not sign NPT and the International organisations such as U.N., IAEA, EU and this time also Interpol. All the participating nations and organisations together represent more than 80% of the world population and more than 90% of the world's total GNP which basically means that almost every country in the world will be participating.

Q. Which agendas will be discussed at Seoul summit ?
A. There are basic agendas that had been discussed at Washington summit which are prevention of nuclear terrorism, nuclear materials, the defense of nuclear facilities, prevention of illegal trade among the nations and so on. And there will be analysis and evaluation between repensetatives regarding process and results for last two years. when Washington summit was declaratory , Seoul summit attract special attention as implementation stage for detail progress. The special agenda to be discuss at Seoul summit is the safety concerns after Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in March.
Though discussions, the importance of nuclear energy will be reminded so that reliability could be restored. Terror problem about radioactive substance which has received less attention at Washington summit, will be handled aggressively at Seoul summit.

Q. This morning AP broadcasted that U.S. would announce food aid within this week and North Korea would also announce tentative suspension of uranium enrichment. This implies green light regarding the six-party talks, and will this also have positive effect on the Summit?
A: Yes, we are sharing that view too. The North Korea's nuclear problem is a core issue regarding nuclear nonproliferation and an issue we have interest on. As I mentioned earlier Nuclear Security Summit is to restrain terrorists from acquiring nuclear materials so since the North Korea nuclear problem is an international issue between countries, it is hard to make North Korea nuclear problem as a direct reference as the summit agenda. However, It would be natural to arouse the interest of countries and media due to the fact that the summit is being held at the Korean penninsular. If the six-party talks are to be held prior to the summit before March, it will have overall positive effect. In addition, discussing nuclear issues in Seoul Nuclear Security Summit itself will send a message to North Korea to abandon nuclear program and come out to the international community. In this aspect, president Lee Myung-Bak's mentioning on last May that if North Korea abandons nuclear program it could be invited to participate in the summit, can be understood.

2011년 12월 26일 월요일

Downloading the official logo song of 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit is delayed

The official Logo song of 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, the ‘Peace Song’ will be provided by a free download event through Olleh Music and Melon from 28th Dec(Monday) for 2 weeks.

2011년 12월 19일 월요일

2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit

Park Jeong-hyun’s ‘Peace Song’, free download begins on 19th Dec through Olleh Music and Melon.

The official Logo song of 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, the ‘Peace Song’ sung by the honorary ambassador Park Jeong-hyun with outstanding singing ability, has already finished recording both in Korean and English version.
The ‘Peace Song’ will be provided by a free download event through Olleh Music and Melon from 19th Dec(Monday) for 2 weeks, celebrating the D-100 of 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. ‘Listen to the beautiful song and participate in the event~’ and Let your friends join as well!

Joint Statement of the Eminent Persons Group for the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit

We, members of the Eminent Persons Group established to advise the President of the Republic of Korea, Lee Myung-bak, on the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit, met in Seoul on 29 November, 2011. We, upon the invitation of President Lee, gathered to discuss ways to ensure the success of the Seoul Summit. In sincere and intense discussions today, we agreed on the following statement and express the hope that it will contribute to next year’s Summit.

1. We recognize and fully support the efforts of many world leaders and intellectuals who have strived to achieve a peaceful and prosperous world free of nuclear weapons, and note that some progress has been made in this regard. However, we at the same time recognize that there is still much to be done to attain this noble cause.

2. We are of the view that nuclear security, aimed at preventing terrorists, criminals, and other irresponsible actors from using nuclear weapons, highly enriched uranium or plutonium for malicious purposes, constitutes an important element in advancing the goal of a nuclear weapon-free, peaceful and prosperous world, together with nuclear disarmament, nuclear non-proliferation, and peaceful uses of nuclear energy. In this regard, we acknowledge that a key strategy to prevent nuclear terrorism is to deny terrorists from gaining access to nuclear weapons, materials, and facilities.

3. We emphasize that in order for the global nuclear security architecture to be robust enough to protect humankind and the planet, it needs to be based on the principle of integrated and balanced independence and interdependence between countries with shared responsibility. We support the objectives of international nuclear security instruments, including the Convention on the Physical Protection of Nuclear Material, as amended, and the International Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism, as essential elements of the global nuclear security architecture. We hope that the Participating States of the Seoul Summit will work towards the Conventions’ universal adherence.

4. We welcome the fact that the Washington Nuclear Security Summit, held in April 2010, made nuclear security the focus of attention at the summit level and succeeded in achieving consensus among 50 global leaders on the gravity of the threat of nuclear terrorism and the need for common action. We recognize that President Obama’s four-year lock-down initiative, which aims to “secure all vulnerable nuclear materials in four years,” played a key role in bringing about this consensus, and strongly support this initiative.

5. We are confident that the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit will serve as a catalyst for realizing a world free of nuclear and radiological terrorism by both reaffirming the principles and the spirit of the Washington Summit and reaching agreement on new commitments and measures to enhance nuclear security. In this regard, we strongly support the Seoul Summit.

6. We expect leaders at the Seoul Summit to enhance public confidence in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. We also urge them to reduce the threats to nuclear facilities and their operating systems, such as sabotage or cyber attacks, by discussing in a responsible manner the ways in which nuclear security and nuclear safety can be mutually reinforced, bearing in mind the implications and lessons learned from the Fukushima nuclear accident. We have every confidence that the Republic of Korea can play a leading role to this end as the Chair Country of the Seoul Summit.

7. We recognize that there is a critical need to build up national and regional capabilities and resilience to deal with the aftermath of a radiological and nuclear accident, whether as a result of a terrorist attack or a natural disaster, in order to mitigate the consequences. In this regard, we also note the need to explain international standards on radioactivity in ways that are understandable to the public.

8. Noting the risk that radiological materials may be illegally obtained and explosive devices may be assembled, and given the serious consequences that arise from perpetrated acts of radiological terrorism, we believe that there is a need to engage in in-depth discussions on the threat of radiological terrorism, together with that of nuclear terrorism at the Summit, with a view to resolving these threats through mutual cooperation.

9. Recognizing that the success of the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit is important to further bolster the global nuclear security regime, we would like to highlight the following for the success of the Summit:
- First, the Seoul Summit should demonstrate tangible progress in implementing the commitments made at the Washington Summit with all participants reporting specifically on activities they have undertaken and propose to undertake;
- Second, the Seoul Summit should further advance the Nuclear Security Summit process to the implementation phase by setting out in the ‘Seoul Communiqué’ a practical vision and new concrete measures;
- Third, each Participating State needs to undertake to make significant contributions to the objective of strengthening nuclear security regime by announcing voluntary, individual commitments at the Seoul Summit. Furthermore, Participating States need to reaffirm the essential role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the nuclear security and safety framework.
- Fourth, the Seoul Summit should take into account the new international security circumstances that have taken shape since the Washington Summit. In particular, in considering the lessons of the Fukushima accident that releases of radioactivity into the environment have grave consequences, the Seoul Summit should recognize that just as insufficient nuclear safety may put nuclear security at risk, insufficient nuclear security may put nuclear safety at risk. In conjunction, it should develop measures for cooperation to reduce the threat of radiological terrorism. The Seoul Summit should also promote the strengthening of international and regional cooperation mechanisms in nuclear safety and security;
- Fifth, the Seoul Summit should emphasize the importance of preventing the illicit transfer of nuclear materials by, inter alia, strengthening international and regional cooperation through the sharing of information and best practices, and capacity building.
- Sixth, the Seoul Summit should build upon the momentum generated by the Washington Nuclear Security Summit and should make efforts to hold a third Summit to provide political impetus at the highest level for the nuclear security regime strengthening process and assess progress made on the Washington Summit’s 4-year lock-down target.

10. We welcome the fact that the Republic of Korea has been steadfast in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy by upholding the principles of nuclear nonproliferation, security and safety. We look forward to the leading role of the Republic of Korea in bridging diverse opinions among Participating States and achieving an effective and successful outcome for the Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. The highly successful peaceful nuclear program of the Republic of Korea, operated with full respect for the requirements of safety, security and safeguards provides a solid basis for this leadership. Their contribution will surely serve to a comprehensive approach to nuclear security worldwide and be seen as the Republic of Korea’s unique contribution to a more secure, safe, happy and prosperous world.

2011년 12월 11일 일요일

Great Achievements of HLF-4!

The Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness (HLF4) has come to a close, resulting in the new Busan Partnership for Effective Development Cooperation, which is a mixed bag in terms of the results that civil society was advocating for.
The Busan Partnership gives a new impetus for aid untying and the use of country systems- crucial areas for making aid contribute better to building the capacities that are needed to end aid dependency.
Some progress has been made on the core aid effectiveness agenda, with strengthened commitments on democratic ownership, using country systems and aid untying. Furthermore, China and other BRICs hesitantly moved under the new partnership’s umbrella.