2011년 9월 28일 수요일

Q&A About 2012 Nuclear Security Summit

Q6. When will 'Seoul Nuclear Safety Summit' be held and which nations and international organizations will participate? And what will be discussed during the summit?

Date & Place: 2012. 3. 26 (Mon.) ~ 27 (Tues.), Seoul

Participants: 47 nations participated in '2010 Washington Summit'· 3 international organizations (UN, IAEA, EU) and INTERPOL, and a few more nations can be added.

A list of participating nations & international organizations

Asia(12) - Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Vietnam, Singapore, India, Indonesia, Japan, China, Kazakhstan, Thailand, Pakistan,  Philippines

The Americas (6) - Mexico, the United States, Brazil, The Argentine Republic, Chile, Canada

Oceania(2) - New Zealand, Australia

Europe(18) - Holland, Norway, Germany, Russia, Begium, Sweden, Switzerland, Spain, Armenia, the United Kingdom, Ukraine, Italy, Georgia, the Czech Republic, Turkey, Poland, France, Finland

Middle East (7) - Morocco, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Jordan, Israel, Egypt

Africa (2) - Nigeria, the Republic of South AfricaSouth Africa

International Organizations (4) - UN, IAEA, EU, INTERPOL

Q7. What goal is the 2012 Seoul Nuclear Security Summit trying to achieve?

Propose a practical vision and implementation of measures concerning nuclear security
The Seoul Summit, by proposing a practical vision and implementation of measures concerning nuclear security, aims to contribute to the realization of a world free from nuclear and radiological terrorism.
For this, the Seoul Summit will advance with the terms of agreement of the Washington Summit, and at the same time will create new goals and measures to execute.

Seoul Communicates(Seoul Communiqué) Adopted
Seoul Summit's vision and measures of practice will be in the Seoul Communiqué, which is the Summit's declaration.
To include key issues and general information of standards, policies, systems, cultural and technical aspects related to nuclear security, such as the management of nuclear materials and radioactive substances, protection of nuclear facilities, prevention of illegal trade, at the Seoul Communiqué, we are discussing with participating countries.

Q8. As a chairman country, which role will the Republic of Korea act?

Preside over meetings and holding press conferences as a chairman country

Mr. Lee Myungbak who is the president of the Republic of Korea will preside over meetings and draw final conclusions. After the closure of the summit press conference, Mr.Lee who has the role of chairman will hold press conference and have interviews and explain the result of meeting to domestic and foreign medias.

Mediate agendas and leading of Summit declaration "Seoul communique"

The Republic of Korea as a chairman country leads Seoul communique which is a result document of  the summit,  mediates participating nations' decisions from various Sherpa meetings and sous-Sherpa meetings before summit and prepares to adopt them in the summit.

Effort to secure substantial outcomes and performance of bridge role among the nations

Provide diplomatic effort to help each coutry to announce individual pleges and peform a role as a bridge, meditating different situations between nuclear possessing and non-possessing coutries, developed and under developed countries.

Selection of nations invited in Seoul nuclear security summit

The Republic of Korea as a chairman country decides countries to be invited in the summit. The Republic of Korea invited forty-six countries which had participated the first summit in Washington and all three international organizations for the countinuity of the nuclear security summit and added Interpol through discussions among participating nations.

The problem of extanding other participating countries is decided by synthetically considering various aspects, such as official participation request from the relevant countries , possiblity of contribution to the nuclear security summit and so on.

The scale of main summit hosted by the Republic of Korea

In 2000, ASEM Summit : Participation of twenty-six nations' representatives
In 2005  APEC Summit : Participation of twenty-one nations' representatives
In 2010 G20 Summit : Participation of twenty-six nations' representatives and seven international organizations' representatives

Q9. What is the meaning of holding Nuclear Security Summit in South Korea, and what is its expected effectiveness?

After the 9.11 terror, it has been leading the flow of international security discussion
Hosting Nuclear Security Summit has a great meaning that South Korea is actively participating in global security discussion after the cold war era, especially after the 9.11 terror.
Nuclear security is central challenge of global security after the cold war era to ultimately realize 'world without nuclear weapon' with nuclear disarmament, non-proliferation, and peaceful using of nuclear energy. Seoul Nuclear Security Summit will make these process of new global security.

International society recognizes South Korea's position and power
Being a nuclear security summit host after US shows that South Korea's global position has rasied in international society.
International society has admitted South Korea's power and position by watching South Korea's climate change measure and green growth leading ability, being the world's fifth nuclear role model, and South Korea's firm belief in non-proliferation treaty in spite of North Korea's nuclear threat.

Contributing to the peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula
In the year 2012, International environment surrounding the Korean peninsula is expected to be developed very fluidly.
North Korea has declared year 2012 as first year of 'Powerful Nation', also there will be presidential election or change of leadership in US, Russia and PRC.
It will be a significant message for arousing the importance of maintaining Korean Peninsula's peace and stability as well as denuclearizing North Korea just by leaders from world leading countries gathering in Seoul and discussing about global security's pending issue.

Regain internal, external confidence about nuclear energy and nuclear plant industry
Also recovering decreased confidence about nuclear energy by discussing about nuclear security and nuclear energy safety after the fukushima disaster, we can contribute to continuous and safe development of nuclear energy market internally and externally.

Enhancing nation's position into Global Korea and raising diplomatic power
From over fifty countries' leader and international organization delegates are attending Seoul Nuclear Security Summit. This is the largest summit South Korea has held. South Korea held G20 summit which is top forum about world economy in november, 2011. By holding Nuclear Security Summit, the largest multilateral global security summit, South Korea will be a global leader nation in not only economy but also security.

Q10.  What are the main schedule and programs of Seoul Nuclear Security Summit?

Seoul Nuclear Security Summit will be held from 2012, March 26(Mon) to 27(Tue) for two days and main schedule is as follows.

Date             Content
------------------------------------------
2012. 3. 26     Welcome Reception
business banquet
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2012. 3. 27 morning conference
business luncheon
afternoon conference
chairman country press conference
special culture event
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Prior to the official conference schedule, the results of Seoul Summit will be enhanced and in order to strengthen the government and civilian cooperation partnership, event will be held as follows

● 2012 Seoul Pre-summit Symposium on Nuclear Security(3. 23): participation of international nuclear security experts, conducted by  Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control(KINAC), and Institute of Foreign Affairs and National Security(IFANS)
● Nuclear Industry Conference(3. 23~24): participation of nuclear power industry CEOs, conducted by Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute  

2011년 9월 23일 금요일

Q&A About Nuclear Security

Q1. What is Nuclear Security Summit?

Nuclear Security Summit, which the highest level of forum that aims to stop nuclear terrorism, is a convention to strenghthen the world's protection management and international cooperation in order to prevent nuclear materials and facilities from terrorist groups.

US president Obama declared that he will make an effort to safely secure vulnerable nuclear materials in four years. As a result, in April of 2010,  the first Nuclear Security Summit was held in Washington.

-The concept of nuclear security
It is to prevent direct and indirect threats from nuclear materials, radioactive substances, and related facilities or activities. When the threat occurs, it blocks the threat by detecting and delaying

Q2. Is Nuclear Security Summit such a big issue to be discussed by 50 countries?

In the modern era, nuclear terrorism is one of the most serious threat. Even one single nuclear terror will result in mass destruction, immense suffering, and unwanted change forever. We need to act on preventing such disaster.
UN secretary general Ban Ki-Moon (2007. 6)

Nuclear terrorism is a real threat, not imaginary.
9/11 terror, which hit downtown skyscraper with commercial aircraft showed us that terrorism using WMD such as nuclear weapon have become a real threat.
The awareness of threats caused by nuclear terrorism may differ among nations, but worst scenario should always be considered for security matters. Also it is clever to prepare nuclear or dirty bomb terrorism though is has possibility of 0.01%.

Unchanging milieu against terrorist threats.
It is generally evaluated that terrorism eradicating environment has not improved after the Osama Bin Laden death.
For non-state entities, such as terrorists, to make nuclear weapons, there must be preceding secret process which includes acquisition of nuclear materials, producing weapon, and border crossing illegal trading, which cannot be regulated by a single country.
Therefore cooperation among nations is absolutely needed, such as border control and mutual investigation.

Nuclear terrorism is a challenge for international society.
Nowaday, in the age of globalization, as interdependence between nations is intensifying, nuclear terrorism is a big challenge for all international society, not just for US and the western nations. And South Korea is not an exception.
Nuclear Security Summit, the heads of world leading countries gather in one space to share their knowledge about nuclear terrorism, and discuss measures to prevent this terrorism carries an very important meaning.

Q3. Has nuclear security been discusssed recently?

It has been discussed since 1960s
No. Nuclear security is that the international movement of nuclear materials has been active since the peaceful use of nuclwear energy increased in the late 1960s. The goal of nucelar security is to protect stealing of nuclear materials and ensure the supply of nuclear fuel.

Raise the necessity after the Cold War ended
Since then, nuclear materials in the former Soviet Union and management issues of nuclear facilities became an important topic as the Cold War ended in the early 1990s and the goal of nuclear security was to discard, reduce and protect nuclear materials·facilities in the same region at that time.

Realistic necessity significantly increased after 9·11 attack
The possible abuse of nuclear materials and facilities by terrorist groups became the most realistic threat after 9·11 attack in 2001 and nuclear security has been emphasized to deal with nuclear terrorism.

Q4. Is it actually possible for terrorists to use nuclear weapons?

Terrorists' use of nuclear weapons is a real threat
It is known that 25 kg of highly enriched uranium or 8 kg of plutonium is needed to build a single nuclear weapon.
So it is important that uranium or plutonium does not get into the hands of the terrorists and gets used to make nuclear weapons.

Nuclear materials that can make 126,500 nuclear weapons are scattered all around the globe
Currently, there are 1,600 tons of highly enriched uranium and 500 tons of plutonium available around the world. With this much nuclear material, approximately 126,500 nuclear weapons can be made.
If terrorists can detonate a single nuclear weapon in the middle of a city, hundreds and thousands of people will die and financial systems around the world will stop, causing a catastrophic disaster.
Also, the damange done to the politics, environment, world, and people's psychology

Q5. What are the main results of The First Washington Nuclear Security Summit?

Adoption of the summit declaration 'Washington Communiqué'

Declared, "Nuclear terrorism is one of the most challenging threats to the international security, and strong nuclear security action is the most effective measure to prevent the acquisition of nuclear meterials by terrorists."

Agreement on 'Work Plan'

Agreed on 50 detailed cooperative nuclear security measures in 11 fields through seperate Work Plan document.

Contribution of the Republic of Korea(ROK)

Another main outcome that had been focused in the Washigton Summit is that about 30 participating nations have stated national commitment, or 'house gift' country-by-country, which includes collection and minimization of high-enriched uranium, ratification of nuclear security related agreements, expansion of contribution on IAEA nuclear security fund, joining GICNT and establishment of nuclear security training centers etc.
ROK has received good appraisal from participating nations by announcing opening of the GICNT general assembly and establishment plan of international nuclear security education training center within ROK as a part of measures on contribution to strengten the international nuclear security system.

* 2010 The First Washington Nuclear Security Summit
summary
● Date and Place: 2010. 4. 12~13, Washington U.S.
● Participating Nations: 47 head of the nations, representatives of UN·IAEA·EU
● Main Results: 'Washington Communiqué,' which contains agreement on strengthening nuclear security. Adoption of detailed 'Work Plan'

Main dicussion points
● Minimization of HEU:higly enriched uranium
● legislation measure regarding nuclear security and joining international agreement
● Practice measures such as sharing informationa and Best Practices
● Bilateral cooperation on prevention of nuclear terrorism
● Multilateral cooperation such as G8 Global Partnership and GICNT
● coopertion through international institution such as IAEA and UN

2011년 9월 15일 목요일

4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness

4th High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness

29 Nov - 1 Dec 2011, Busan, Korea

http://www.aideffectiveness.org/busanhlf4/en.html

Greeting words, 2012 Nuclear Security Summit

Greetings,

You will remember that the Republic of Korea, as the chairman country of G20 Summit which was held in Seoul last November, had played the role of rational mediator to create new world order between developed, developing and newly-rising countries. In 2012 March, the Republic of Korea will be holding Nuclear Security Summit that is much larger in scale than G20 summit in the field of diplomatic security.

Leaders of around 50 countries and representatives of international institutions will participate and mutually collaborate at Seoul Nuclear Security Summit in order to discuss solutions for nuclear security problems which international community is facing such as, prevention of nucler terrorism and safe management of nuclear materials. Futhermore, Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in Japan has increased the international concern over nuclear safety, so the international cooperative measures could also be disccused. As chairman country of Nuclear security summit, the Republic of Korea will suggest clear visions for nuclear security and try to draw practical measures that international community should perform.

Seoul nuclear summit will contribute to more robust nuclear security system that will enable much secure and peaceful use of nuclear power. As a result, we expect the nuclear power to become a much valuable asset for human welfare and green growth.

I look forward to your support and encouragement

Thank you.

President of the Republic of Korea

Myungbak Lee

2011년 9월 9일 금요일

2012 Nuclear Security Summit

Here is the link for the nuclear security summit which will be held in seoul, south korea
click the below for more details :)

http://www.thenuclearsecuritysummit.org/